Blog - A DNA test for obesity: why and who needs it?
Obesity is a pathological state resulting from metabolic disorders in the human body, which leads to the accumulation of fat under the skin and around internal organs. The main risk factors are overeating, a sedentary lifestyle, endocrine disorders.
The problem of excess weight affects many people, but those who adhere to a healthy lifestyle, but at the same time cannot get rid of unwanted shapes, are particularly concerned. The mentioned phenomenon is easy to explain: the metabolic process is controlled at the genetic level, so you need to look for the root of the problem in the genome - the combination of the hereditary material contained in human cells.
Which genes are accountable for obesity and where is the evidence?
A team of American scientists working on the research of the overweight problem has reached the conclusion that the risk of obesity depends on genetics. The significance of the FTO gene, which is directly related to the predisposition to overweight, has long been discovered - people with different mutations in its structure have a tendency towards corpulence. The results of scientific research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology confirmed that the FTO gene supervises a number of other genes responsible for the metabolic process.
The team of researchers used a detailed description of chemical markers in the DNA structure that are in charge of the functioning of genes - all this information is kept in a special database. The data obtained after reviewing 8 genes proved that the link between them in terms of predisposition to obesity does exist. The formation of excess adipose tissue is resulted by the hyperactivity of the IRX3 and IRX5 genes, which cannot be suppressed by the FTO gene.
Genetic factors play an important role in the development of obesity, - they are either the primary cause or precisely indicate a predisposition to the disease. The LEP gene, previously known as OB, has the ability to encode leptin, which belongs to the hormones of adipose tissue. Mutations in the LEP gene and the LEPR leptin receptor gene are detected in overweight patients. In rare cases, obesity is the reason for the polymorphisms of ADRB3, LPL, and TNF genes.
How does genotype study prevent complications?
Analyzing 1-2 genes is not enough to estimate the likelihood of developing obesity - the result will not be entirely accurate. For this reason, it is recommended to take a comprehensive genetic analysis aimed at examining the genome as a whole.
In case the test results indicated that a person is prone to rapid excess weight gain, this does not mean all that remains is to obey the fate, because the problem can and must be kept under control. Start monitoring your health, adjust your diet, exercise, give up bad habits - all this is an excellent prevention of obesity. Start looking after your health, adjust your nutrition scheme, do some sport, quit bad habits – all this is excellent obesity prevention.
Heredity is responsible for 50% of cases of overweight, the other half is lifestyle and nutrition. To date, awareness of genetic defects in the human genome allows developing a personalized scheme for obesity prevention. In addition, medics manage to successfully identify the predisposition to other associated diseases - diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, musculoskeletal system pathologies, disorders in the respiratory and urinary systems.